Current Trends Of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems In Cancer Therapy

Cancer is a malignant tumour that invades confined tissues and can cause metastasis; standard treatment procedures like surgical operation, radiation, and chemotherapy alone or in combination.
Compounds that get metabolized into active drugs, increase bioavailability and improve targeting. (Unsplash)
Compounds that get metabolized into active drugs, increase bioavailability and improve targeting. (Unsplash)

Cancer is a malignant tumour that invades confined tissues and can cause metastasis and mortality; standard treatment procedures like surgical operation, radiation, and chemotherapy alone or in combination. It's all about improving the lives of patients.

Suppose when a patient comes in with the disease, we want the patient to be cured as quickly as possible, without significant side effects. So the current drug delivery is excellent. We have helped many patients with the current supply of medicines, but what is also happening is in many cases; You see many side effects present; for example, when undergoing chemotherapy, you see that patients suffer, they lose their hair, their immune systems are weakened, and their quality of life decreases. So what are the different things? Technical aspects that we can provide. So these things have fewer side effects and greater effectiveness.

Compounds that get metabolized into active drugs, increase bioavailability and improve targeting. (Unsplash)
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PRODRUGS

Compounds that get metabolized into active drugs, increase bioavailability and improve targeting.

Prodrugs are widely used to target cancer cells with cytotoxic compounds. Targeted prodrugs for cancer therapy have achieved a high diversity in target selection, activation chemistry, size, and physicochemical nature.

Antibody-drug conjugates, targeted polymer-drug conjugates, and other conjugates that self-assemble to form liposomal and micellar nanoparticles are currently being developed as cancer prodrugs. In addition, conditional targeting of multiple cellular markers in recombinant "prodrugs," such as engineered anthrax toxin, shows promise in biological specificity.

Conditional targeting is accomplished through structured complementation, the spontaneous assembly of engineered inactive subunits or fragments to reconstitute functional activity.

CONTROLLED RELEASE: RESERVOIR SYSTEMS

The reservoir-based system is one of the most widely used controlled drug delivery systems today. The drug release rate in these systems is controlled by the properties of the polymer (e.g., polymer composition and molecular weight), the thickness of the coating, and the physicochemical properties of the enclosed drug, such as solubility, drug particle size, and molecular weight. 3, 7 Reservoir-based systems are best suited for one of the two applications listed below.

The administration of a medication to a specific region over a medium or long period is usually done if the area being targeted is challenging to reach via systemic administration (i.e., eye, ear) and the drugs administered are toxic and may necessitate a long-term course of dosing (i.e., cancer treatments).

Compounds that get metabolized into active drugs, increase bioavailability and improve targeting. (Unsplash)
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MINI OSMOTIC PUMPS.

Mini Osmotic Pumps are small, implantable pumps used in research on mice and other laboratory animals.

These pumps deliver hormones, drugs, and other test agents at continuous and controlled rates ranging from one day to six weeks without needing external connections or frequent handling.

Mini pumps are also used for targeted drug delivery, in which the effects of a drug or test agent are concentrated on a specific tissue or organ.

Three-dimensional, hydrophilic polymer networks capable of swelling by absorbing large amounts of fluids. (Pixabay)
Three-dimensional, hydrophilic polymer networks capable of swelling by absorbing large amounts of fluids. (Pixabay)

HYDROGELS

Three-dimensional, hydrophilic polymer networks capable of swelling by absorbing large amounts of fluids

Application: contact lenses, tissue engineering, biosensor membranes, drug delivery.

Hydrogels, as compared to nanoparticle-based carriers, provide sustained or triggered administration of hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents, as well as other biomolecules. Furthermore, hydrogel carriers enable the co-administration of multiple drugs for synergistic anticancer effects with high drug loading content and low drug resistance.

Another distinct advantage is the targeted drug delivery system's localized application, in which various hydrogel formulations can be directly implanted into the injury lesion location to avoid intravenous injection of small nanoparticles into the blood circulation. In this case, by controlling the hydrogel architectures, gelation mechanisms, and network pores, hydrogel carriers can tailor the drug release periods for a longer time (several months) (physical and chemical gelation)

Nanotechnology is a promising approach for cancer diagnosis. In the future, Patient history and targeted drug delivery systems will play an important role in cancer treatment and patient compliance.
Dr. Veena, Doctor of Pharmacy (Principal of VCP college klb)

CARRIERS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED CANCER THERAPY

To address the shortcomings of traditional chemotherapeutic agents, molecularly targeted therapies are urgently needed to improve drug efficiency and reduce potential toxicity. As a result of using novel controlled nano-delivery systems, drug-loaded nanoparticles of optimal size can exhibit clever manipulation of drug release behaviour when the microenvironment is slightly altered, which is used for targeted therapy.

Nanotechnology-based drug carriers have enabled selective methods of treating OSCC. Compared to chemotherapeutic agents, targeted drug delivery systems are widely used for controlled release with advanced advantages on improved therapeutic effects and reduced side effects, which can significantly enhance the bioactive agent's main properties: absorption, metabolism, distribution, and elimination.

The features of several nanotechnology-based carriers, such as nanoparticles, liposomes, cyclodextrins, nanolipids, and hydrogels, are described here. Furthermore, biomimetic nanoparticles such as vitamins, exosomes, peptides/proteins, and virus-like particles have been used as possible carriers of chemotherapeutic drugs for oral cancer treatment.

CONCLUSION

Significant difficulties and advances have been developed with diverse nanotechnological techniques for oral cancer therapy. Based on these site-specific drug delivery systems with customized architectures and different physicochemical properties, these carriers can load anticancer drugs to target malignant cells with excellent efficiency and minimal damage to healthy cells. However, only some clinical studies have been conducted for the currently targeted drug delivery systems, revealing that improving clinical efficiency, well-control drug release, and reducing adverse effects are extremely difficult.

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