Can teeth be present in the female reproductive organ? Yes, it can, but as a result of a condition called an ovarian dermoid cyst. An ovarian dermoid cyst is a fluid-filled cavity that may contain hair, teeth, or glands present in the skin. The condition can affect one or both the ovaries. An ovarian dermoid cyst is a benign cyst, but if left untreated, it can result in severe complications.
A tooth that grows somewhere other than the oral cavity is called an ectopic tooth. Therefore, the teeth that grow inside an ovarian dermoid cyst can be considered ectopic. Ovarian dermoid cyst is also known as mature cystic ovarian teratoma.
What causes an ovarian dermoid cyst?
Dermoid cysts occur due to abnormalities during the early stages of fetal development. When the skin layers do not grow properly, the cells in these layers get entrapped in a sac and grow around an internal organ or other places where they should not grow. Hence, it is a congenital condition, which means it is present from birth. Ovarian dermoid cysts occur when this type of cyst grows in the ovaries. Other dermoid cysts are;
Periorbital dermoid cyst
Spinal dermoid cyst
What are the signs and symptoms of an ovarian dermoid cyst?
Severe pain in the lower abdomen
Pressure in the abdomen
Pain in the lower back and thighs
Unexplained weight loss
Pain during sexual intercourse
Abnormal vaginal bleeding
Nausea and vomiting
How is an ovarian dermoid cyst treated?
Ovarian dermoid cysts are treated by two methods:
Ovarian cystectomy: In this procedure, the part of the ovary with the cyst is removed. Fertility is preserved after ovarian cystectomy.
Oophorectomy: In an oophorectomy, the entire ovary is removed along with the cyst. The female who undergoes oophorectomy becomes infertile.
Even though these procedures are effective, there is a 3-4% chance of developing an ovarian dermoid cyst again.
The complications of ovarian dermoid cysts mostly depend on their size. These cysts sometimes grow larger and can twist the ovary, which can even cause complete damage to the ovary. This is known as ovarian torsion. Ovarian dermoid cysts can also break and release their cystic contents into the abdominal cavity, which sometimes requires emergency treatment. There is a 2% risk of turning an ovarian dermoid cyst into cancer if the woman is older than 45 years or if the cyst grows rapidly.